The Federal Reserve Bank of New York works to promote sound and well-functioning financial systems and markets through its provision of industry and payment services, advancement of infrastructure reform in key markets and training and educational support to international institutions.
The Outreach and Education function engages, empowers and educates the Second District communities that the Bank serves, especially civic leaders, students, educators, small business owners, policymakers and the general public. It furthers the Bank's commitment to the region by listening to the communities we serve and leveraging our unique attributes to positively impact school and university programs, as well as analysis and research.
Using more than two decades of industry data, the authors profile the external orientation of manufacturing industries in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Japan. They use the term external orientation to describe the potential exposure of an industrys revenues and costs to world events through exports, imports, and imported inputs. For each major manufacturing industry, the authors provide histories of the share of total revenues earned in foreign markets, the role of imports in domestic consumption, and the costs of imported inputs in total production. In addition, they construct a measure of net external orientation, which is intended to capture how much an industrys use of imported inputs (a cost factor) can potentially offset exposure to the international economy through exports (a revenue factor).