The Federal Reserve Bank of New York works to promote sound and well-functioning financial systems and markets through its provision of industry and payment services, advancement of infrastructure reform in key markets and training and educational support to international institutions.
The Outreach and Education function engages, empowers and educates the Second District communities that the Bank serves, especially civic leaders, students, educators, small business owners, policymakers and the general public. It furthers the Bank's commitment to the region by listening to the communities we serve and leveraging our unique attributes to positively impact school and university programs, as well as analysis and research.
A 2012 paper by Goodhart, Kashyap, Tsomocos, and Vardoulakis (GKTV) proposes a dynamic general equilibrium framework that provides a conceptual—and to some extent quantitative—framework for the analysis of macroprudential policies. The distinguishing feature of GKTV’s paper relative to any other on macroprudential policy is its study of a setting with multiple financial frictions that permits the analysis of multiple macroprudential policy tools at the same time. The modeling approach includes various market failures such as incomplete markets with heterogeneous agents, fire-sale externalities, and margin spirals, all of which provide rationales for policies designed to improve welfare. In GKTV’s model, liquidity ratios are found to be more efficient preemptive tools than capital ratios or loan-to-value ratios. However, these liquidity ratios need to be relaxed in times of crises in order to reduce adverse effects from fire-sale externalities. It remains to be seen how robust these findings are in alternative, fully dynamic settings. Furthermore, GKTV’s approach does not address the tension between micro- and macroprudential objectives, and the timing of the buildup and release of policies is not specified precisely.